Ezekiel A. Walker, book review of Catherine Higgs, Chocolate Islands: Cocoa, Slavery and Colonial Africa (Ohio University Press, 2012), in Enterprise & Society 15/1 (March 2014): 197-200.
The Food Industries of Europe in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (Ashgate, 2013), Edited by Derek J. Oddy and Alain Drouardfrom Ashgate:
- The industrialization of food preservation and processing has been a dramatic development across Europe during modern times. This book sets out its story from the beginning of the nineteenth century when preservation of food from one harvest to another was essential to prevent hunger and even famine. Population growth and urbanization depended upon a break out from the ‘biological ancien regime’ in which hunger was an ever-present threat. The application of mass production techniques by the food industries was essential to the modernization of Europe.From the mid-nineteenth century the development of food industries followed a marked regional pattern. After an initial growth in north-west Europe, the spread towards south-east Europe was slowed by social, cultural and political constraints. This was notable in the post-Second World War era. The picture of change in this volume is presented by case studies of countries ranging from the United Kingdom in the west to Romania in the east. All illustrate the role of food industries in creating new products that expanded the traditional cereal-based diet of pre-industrial Europe.Industrially preserved and processed foods provided new flavours and appetizing novelties which led to brand names recognized by consumers everywhere. Product marketing and advertising became fundamental to modern food retailing so that Europe’s largest food producers, Danone, Nestlé and Unilever, are numbered amongst the world’s biggest companies.
- Contents: Creating New Foods: ‘The biggest chocolate factory in the world’: the Menier chocolate factory in Noisiel, Alain Drouard; ‘Czech chocolate is the best!’ Nationalism in the food industry in the Czech lands around the year 1900, Martin Franc
International Commission for Research into European Food History
Food in History, 82nd Anglo-American Conference of Historians, 11-13 July 2013
Ian Miller (University College Dublin), A Dangerous, Revolutionary Force amongst Us’: Conceptualizing Working-Class Tea Drinking in the British Isles, c.1860-1900
Chair: Margrit Schulte (Dusseldorf)
Jonathan Morris (University of Hertfordshire), The Espresso Menu: An International History
Margrit Schulte (Beerbühl), Transferring Sweet Secrets: Transnational connections in the European Chocolate Industry
Angelika Epple (Bielefeld), Chocolate and the Invention of Quality
Ruben Quass (Bielefeld), Fair Trade Coffee. “Global” Product – “Glocal” Project – “Local” Goals?
Chair: Christopher Currie (IHR)
Molly Perry (The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg), ‘Flowing Bowls and Bumping Glasses’: Raising Toasts, Declaring Loyalty, and Protesting in the British Empire
Chair: Jonathan Morris (University of Hertfordshire)
Tatsuya Mitsuda (Keio University, Tokyo), The hybridization of tastes: chocolate in Japan, c.1900-1970
Yavuz Köse (University of Hamburg), Chocolate and Coffee in the Late Ottoman Empire and Turkish Republic
Merry White (Boston University), Coffee Japanese Style
Mars chocolate established its Historic Division in 2006. It also created the Chocolate History Group and published a book, Chocolate: History, Culture, and Heritage (2009).
“reliance on global ingredients is what sets apart this new generation of chocolatiers”
James Delbourgo, “Sir Hans Sloane’s Milk Chocolate and the Whole History of the Cacao,” Social Text 29 (March 2011): 71-102.